Orthoptists diagnose and treat anomalies of binocular vision. They examine, assess and treat vision impairments, squint, amblyopia and eye motility disorders. Orthoptists apply these methods in particular in the fields of paediatrics, neurology, neuro-ophthalmology, ophthalmology, orthoptics, optometry, pleoptics and strabology assessing functional diseases of the eye for improving functional disorders of the visual system. They also provide counselling, preventive measures and training activities and may refract and prescribe glasses, such as prism corrective glasses.
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- Medical informatics
The processes and tools used for the analysis and dissemination of medical data through computerized systems.
- Types of strabismus
The characteristics of the various types of strabismus such as esotropia and hypertropia.
- Human anatomy
The dynamic relationship of human structure and function and the muscosceletal, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, endocrine, urinary, reproductive, integumentary and nervous systems; normal and altered anatomy and physiology throughout the human lifespan.
- Contact lens fitting techniques
The techniques and tools used to fit contact lenses.
- Health care legislation
The patients` rights and responsibilities of health practitioners and the possible repercussions and prosecutions in relation to medical treatment negligence or malpractice.
- Treatment of strabismus
The treatment administered in the case of strabismus in patients of all ages.
- First aid
The emergency treatment given to a sick or injured person in the case of circulatory and/or respiratory failure, unconsciousness, wounds, bleeding, shock or poisoning.
- Health care occupation-specific ethics
The moral standards and procedures, ethical questions and obligations specific to occupations in a health care setting such as respect for human dignity, self-determination, informed consent and patient confidentiality.
- Hygiene in a health care setting
The procedures related to maintaining a hygienic environment within a health care setting such as hospitals and clinics. It can range from hand washing to cleaning and disinfection of medical equipment used and infection control methods.
The science that studies the elements and reaction of light.
Pharmacology is a medical specialty mentioned in the EU Directive 2005/36/EC.
The components of a disease, the cause, mechanisms of development, morphologic changes, and the clinical consequences of those changes.
Anaesthetics is a medical specialty mentioned in the EU Directive 2005/36/EC.
- Professional documentation in health care
The written standards applied in the health care professional environments for documentation purposes of one`s activity.
- Medical terminology
The meaning of medical terms and abbreviations, of medical prescriptions and various medical specialties and when to use it correctly.
- Paediatric psychology
Study of how psychological aspects can influence and impact illnesses and injuries in infants, children and adolescents.
Neurology is a medical specialty mentioned in the EU Directive 2005/36/EC.
The principles, assessment techniques and treatment of orthoptic practice.
- Ophthalmological examination methods
The techniques and methods applied to examine patients` eyesight and take related measurements.
- Human physiology
The science that studies the human organs and its interactions and mechanisms.
The medical specialty which is concerned with the study of the nervous system functionalities.
The diseases of the nervous system that affect vision and control of eye movement.
Paediatrics is a medical specialty mentioned in the EU Directive 2005/36/EC.
The human behaviour and performance with individual differences in ability, personality, interests, learning, and motivation.
- Empathise with the healthcare user
Understand the background of clients` and patients’ symptoms, difficulties and behaviour. Be empathetic about their issues; showing respect and reinforcing their autonomy, self-esteem and independence. Demonstrate a concern for their welfare and handle according to the personal boundaries, sensitivities, cultural differences and preferences of the client and patient in mind.
- Educate on the prevention of illness
Offer evidence-based advice on how to avoid ill health, educate and advise individuals and their carers on how to prevent ill health and/or be able to advise how to improve their environment and health conditions. Provide advice on the identification of risks leading to ill health and help to increase the patients' resilience by targeting prevention and early intervention strategies.
- Advise on healthcare users' informed consent
Ensure patients/clients are fully informed about the risks and benefits of proposed treatments so they can give informed consent, engaging patients/clients in the process of their care and treatment.
- Develop a collaborative therapeutic relationship
Develop a mutually collaborative therapeutic relationship during treatment, fostering and gaining healthcare users' trust and cooperation.
- Provide therapy of the visual system
Apply suitable orthoptic, pleoptic and optic treatment methods, using equipment such as lenses (`training glasses`), prisms, filters, patches, electronic targets, or balance boards, and suggest and implement adaptation options or possibilities for coping with everyday life, supervising in-office reinforcement exercises and instructing the patient to execute at-home exercises.
- Undertake healthcare examination
Assess the healthcare user's physical state, taking detailed information on previous injuries, surgery, general health, resources and lifestyle into account.
- Diagnose problems of the visual system
Identify and diagnose problems of the visual system, such as those related to binocular vision, ocular motility, amblyopia or lazy eye, strabismus or squint, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, assessing the sensory state of the eye.
- Promote inclusion
Promote inclusion in health care and social services and respect diversity of beliefs, culture, values and preferences, keeping in mind the importance of equality and diversity issues.
- Respond to changing situations in health care
Cope with pressure and respond appropriately and in time to unexpected and rapidly changing situations in healthcare.
- Adhere to organisational guidelines
Adhere to organisational or department specific standards and guidelines. Understand the motives of the organisation and the common agreements and act accordingly.
- Follow clinical guidelines
Follow agreed protocols and guidelines in support of healthcare practice which are provided by healthcare institutions, professional associations, or authorities and also scientific organisations.
- Work in a multicultural environment in health care
Interact, relate and communicate with individuals from a variety of different cultures, when working in a healthcare environment.
- Interact with healthcare users
Communicate with clients and their carer’s, with the patient’s permission, to keep them informed about the clients’ and patients’ progress and safeguarding confidentiality.
- Apply organisational techniques
Employ a set of organisational techniques and procedures which facilitate the achievement of the goals set. Use these resources efficiently and sustainably, and show flexibility when required.
- Work in multidisciplinary health teams
Participate in the delivery of multidisciplinary health care, and understand the rules and competences of other healthcare related professions.
- Test visual acuity
Test patients` visual acuity, perception of depth colour, and ability to focus and coordinate the eyes.
- Record healthcare users' progress related to treatment
Record the healthcare user's progress in response to treatment by observing, listening and measuring outcomes.
- Ensure safety of healthcare users
Make sure that healthcare users are being treated professionally, effectively and safe from harm, adapting techniques and procedures according to the person's needs, abilities or the prevailing conditions.
- Contribute to continuity of health care
Contribute to the delivery of coordinated and continuous healthcare.
- Communicate effectively in healthcare
Communicate effectively with patients, families and other caregivers, health care professionals, and community partners.
- Apply health sciences
Apply a broad range of bio-medical, psycho-social, organisational, educational, and societal aspects of health, disease, and healthcare to improve healthcare services and to improve quality of life.
- Receive patient referrals with eye conditions
Receive patient referrals from the eye casualty and neurology departments, eye clinics, general practitioners, health visitors and community clinics.
- Inform policy makers on health-related challenges
Provide useful information related to health care professions to ensure policy decisions are made in the benefit of communities.
- Provide health education
Provide evidence based strategies to promote healthy living, disease prevention and management.
- Deal with emergency care situations
Assess the signs and be well-prepared for a situation that poses an immediate threat to a person's health, security, property or environment.
- Accept own accountability
Accept accountability for one`s own professional activities and recognise the limits of one`s own scope of practice and competencies.
- Conduct specialised orthoptic tests
Conduct specialised tests such as colour vision test, Ishihara, Farnsworth, D-15, Pseudo-isochromatic colour plates, ophthalmic photography and corneal light reflex testing, analysing the information obtained from these tests to determine the effects of general pathology on the eyes and effects of eye diseases.
- Perform vision rehabilitation
Maximise the remaining sight in people with low vision using rehabilitation strategies and magnification aids.
- Advise patients on vision improvement conditions
Advise patients with low vision on strategies to enhance their sight, such as use of magnification and lighting equipment.
- Use e-health and mobile health technologies
Use mobile health technologies and e-health (online applications and services) in order to enhance the provided healthcare.
- Provide treatment strategies for challenges to human health
Identify possible treatment protocols for the challenges to human health within a given community in cases such as infectious diseases of high consequences at the global level.
- Comply with legislation related to health care
Comply with the regional and national legislation that is relevant to one`s work and apply it in practice.
- Listen actively
Give attention to what other people say, patiently understand points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times; able to listen carefully the needs of customers, clients, passengers, service users or others, and provide solutions accordingly.
- Comply with quality standards related to healthcare practice
Apply quality standards related to risk management, safety procedures, patients feedback, screening and medical devices in daily practice, as they are recognized by the national professional associations and authorities.
- Carry out orthoptic treatments
Carry out orthoptic treatments by using occlusion therapy for amblyopia, prism therapy, and exercises of convergence and fusional ability where indicated.
- Supervise orthoptic treatments
Supervise orthoptic treatments by using occlusion therapy for amblyopia, prism therapy, and exercises of convergence and fusional ability where indicated.
- Apply context specific clinical competences
Apply professional and evidence based assessment, goal setting, delivery of intervention and evaluation of clients, taking into account the developmental and contextual history of the clients, within one`s own scope of practice.
- Promote ocular health
Participate in activities that contribute to promoting ocular health and preventing ocular problems.
- Manage healthcare users' data
Keep accurate client records which also satisfy legal and professional standards and ethical obligations in order to facilitate client management, ensuring that all clients' data (including verbal, written and electronic) are treated confidentially.